Chevron’s Latest Oil Deal With Iraq Is One To Watch

By Simon Watkins – Nov 17, 2021, 5:00 PM CST

The newly resuscitated Iraq National Oil Company (INOC) has been authorised by the government in Baghdad to directly negotiate with U.S. oil giant, Chevron, for it to develop the long-delayed Nasiriyah oil field in the southern DhiQar province, according to several domestic news sources. 

The idea of developing the 4.36 billion-barrel Nasiriyah oilfield has been mooted by a rapid succession of governments in Iraq since it was discovered by INOC in 1975. The original plan to develop the field on a standalone basis was shelved in the lead-up to the Iran-Iraq war that began in 1980 and lasted until 1988. The field eventually came on-stream in 2009 and was listed on the 2009-2010 fast-track development plan, which aimed to raise its output to at least 50,000 bpd in the first phase. https://8a33cef0b3b53d388df223727c002f74.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0

In the first half of 2009, Chevron was one of four international oil companies (IOCs), along with Italy’s ENI, Japan’s Nippon Oil, and Spain’s Repsol, to be invited to submit bids to develop the field on an engineering procurement construction (EPC) contract basis. The Japanese consortium led by Nippon Oil, and comprising Inpex, and JGC Corporation, then looked set to win the contract before negotiations broke down again. 

In 2014, a serious push was made to resuscitate the development of the Nasiriyah field within the broader scope of the ‘Nasiriyah Integrated Project’ (NIP) that also included the development of adjunct lesser oil sites to the main Nassiriyah site and the construction of a 300,000 barrels per day (bpd) refinery. Bids for this wider project were encouraged by the government-ordered changes to the original Iraq technical service contract (TSC) that were aimed at addressing the concern of many IOCs that saw the contract model as falling short of the production sharing contracts model that they preferred. 

Unlike the previous contracts, the new TSC variant offered investors a share in project revenues, but only when production began, and the Oil Ministry would pay recovery costs from the date of commencement of work. This differed from the previous contract where the costs were only paid when the contractor raised production by 10 per cent. This said, investors would still have to pay 35 per cent taxes on the profit they made from the Nassiriya project, the same amount as in previous deals. 

At that point in 2014, the international engineering and construction firm Foster Wheeler had already completed a front end engineering and design study for the refinery, and 12 potential bidders were on the list. These comprised: India’s Reliance Industries, Oil and Natural Gas Corp, and Essar Oil, Russia’s Rosneft, Lukoil, and Zarubezhneft, France’s Total, and Maurel & Prom, China’s CNPC, the U.S.’s Brown Energy, a Japanese joint bidding team from JGC and Tonen General, and South Korea’s GS Engineering & Construction. 

Given longstanding IOC concerns about legal, accounting, and financial transparency in Iraq, this 2014 initiative to develop the Nassiriyah oil field foundered. As summarised by the independent international non-governmental organisation, Transparency International (TI), in its ‘Corruption Perceptions Index’, Iraq demonstrates: “Massive embezzlement, procurement scams, money laundering, oil smuggling and widespread bureaucratic bribery that have led the country to the bottom of international corruption rankings, fuelled political violence and hampered effective state building and service delivery.” 

In 2017, China relaxed its directive of the previous two years to all state-owned hydrocarbons companies to cut budgetsFrom the Iraqi side, this coincided with a fresh impetus for expediting as much production from the south of the country ahead of the chaos in oil supplies from the north that was likely to result (and did) from Kurdistan’s independence referendum to be held in September. 

These factors then led to China’s Sinopec and PetroChina proposing a deal that would see the NIP being rolled out as part of the broader ‘Integrated South Project’ (ISP). The ISP (later rebranded as the ‘South Iraq Integrated Project’) aimed to boost output across Iraq’s southern oilfields, and also to build out related infrastructure, including pipelines, transport routes, and the construction of the Common Seawater Supply Project (CSSP). 

“The Chinese said that they would spend US$9 billion on the [NIP-related] refinery and the first phase of developing Nassiryah but as, under the terms of Iraqi oil contracts, the Iraqis would have to pay back this cost to the Chinese from the value of oil recovered,” a source who works closely with Iraq’s Oil Ministry told OilPrice.com. “The initial reaction from the Oil Ministry was to decline the offer, and to say that the development should only cost around US$4 billion, which the Chinese in turn flatly turned down.” 

The Chinese had other demands that grated on Iraq at that time as well. “China also wanted its firms to receive their costs back in a much shorter timeframe than most other similar projects,” said the source. “This meant that they were effectively asking for a per barrel remuneration fee at a 15 per cent premium to the highest maximum fee being paid to any company in Iraq for a regular crude oil producing field, which was US$6 per barrel to PetroChina for al-Ahdab,” he added. “This would mean that the Chinese would get around US$6.90 per barrel, more than [Angola’s] Sonangol for its heavy oil extraction at Najmah [US$6 per barrel] and Qairayah [US$5 per barrel] and would dwarf the US$1.49 per barrel that [Malaysia’s] Petronas was getting for the same type of field of Gharraf,” he told OilPrice.com. “China also demanded that it was given [Iraq] dinar-denominated government-backed bonds for the entire amount [US$9 billion] that could be cashed in if the development did not start to generate large amounts of oil quickly,” he underlined.

Given the negative history of dealing with China over the Nassiriyah project and the fact that Russia is occupied elsewhere in the country and the region, the U.S. might be in an unusually positive position to take a significant role in either the Nassiryah field development alone or in the broader NIP. This has been bolstered by the apparent willingness of Iraq’s de facto leader – radical Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr – to engage with U.S. ally, Saudi Arabia, and by the shift in tone from one key player in Iraq’s influential al-Hakim family. 

Whether this shift in attitude towards doing substantial and enduring business with the U.S. across its oil, gas, and petrochemicals sectors is genuine, or whether it is just the usual games-playing by Baghdad to keep the money flowing from Washington, remains to be seen but the slew of deals signaled recently appear propitious at this stage. 

By Simon Watkins for Oilprice.com

https://www.google.com/amp/s/oilprice.com/Energy/Crude-Oil/Chevrons-Latest-Oil-Deal-With-Iraq-Is-One-To-Watch.amp.html

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The commission sets next week as a date for deciding the election results

Obelisk - the event as it happened

2021/11/18 18:02

  • number of readings 150
  • Section : Iraq

Baghdad / Obelisk: The Independent High Electoral Commission confirmed, Thursday, November 18, 2021, that changing the election results depends on the decisions of the judiciary regarding the outcome of the appeals and their answers, while it announced a possible date for resolving the results.

Director of the Media and Mass Communication Department at the Electoral Commission, Hassan Salman, said in a statement followed by the obelisk that the commission received almost all the appeals from the judiciary within the legal period, pointing out that the number of appeals reached more than 1,000, including what is contradicted by the commission.

He added that there are six appeals in this field, and legal measures are supposed to be taken according to the commission’s decision, which may require a certain time and may not require much time.  

On talking about changing the election results, Salman explained that changing the election results depends on the judicial authority’s decision on the outcome of appeals and their answers, stressing that the final decision of the judiciary.

He continued: Next week will be the decisive week, perhaps in the middle of the first or second.

The Electoral Commission announced the completion of the procedures for considering the appeals and their appendices and the accompanying audit and review of the contested stations and counted and sorted manually.

According to the preliminary results of the legislative elections, the Sadrist movement, led by Muqtada al-Sadr, won the largest number of parliament seats, 73 out of 329.

The Taqadoud Alliance, led by the outgoing Speaker of Parliament, Muhammad al-Halbousi, came in second place, after winning 37 seats.

The State of Law bloc, headed by the head of the State of Law coalition, Nuri al-Maliki, came third with 34 seats, then the Kurdistan Democratic Party with 32 seats.

The coordinating framework had renewed its rejection of the election results, noting that the Electoral Commission had not presented anything new until this moment, and criticized its move away from the polling stations about 50 meters.

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In the presence of Blackshart.. The Shiite framework meeting begins to reveal “evidence of forgery”

politicsbreakingUnited nationsElection resultscoordinating framework 2021-11-18 14:45A-AA+

Shafaq News/ An informed political source stated, on Thursday evening, that the leaders of the Shiite coordination framework started a meeting in the presence of the representative of the United Nations Mission in Iraq to discuss what they possess of evidence of “rigging” the results of the recent parliamentary elections.

The source told Shafaq News Agency, “The leaders of the coordination framework are now holding their meeting in the presence of the representative of the United Nations, Jeanine Plasschaert, who had requested to attend this meeting.”

He explained that “the meeting will discuss the evidence possessed by the leaders of the framework regarding fraud and fraud in the elections and the appeals submitted to the electoral process.”

He pointed out that “Blackshart will see all the evidence and appeals during the meeting for the purpose of submitting them to the United Nations.”

Earlier today, an informed political source said that the forces of the Shiite coordination framework will hold an important meeting this evening at the home of the leader of the Wisdom Movement, Ammar al-Hakim.

The source told Shafak News Agency; The meeting will discuss Al-Hakim’s initiative, as well as the latest developments in the appeals against the election results. The meeting will also address what was stated in the speech of the leader of the Sadrist movement, Muqtada Al-Sadr.

The source indicated; The Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, Jeanine Plasschaert, may participate in the meeting, but this matter has not been resolved until now.

https://shafaq.com/ar/%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%B6%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%AA-%D8%A8%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%8A-%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B4%D9%81-%D8%AF%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B2%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%B1

Two factions respond to the chest: We are not losers, and you must surrender your weapons first

politicsbreakingMuqtada al-SadrHezbollah Brigadesloose weaponlosing blocksMother Ali Brigades 2021-11-18 14:42A-AA+

Shafaq News/ Two armed Shiite factions responded, on Thursday, to the speech of the leader of the Sadrist movement, Muqtada al-Sadr, stressing that the blocs objecting to the election results are “not losers”, while one of them demanded that al-Sadr take the initiative first to hand over the weapons of his faction, Saraya al-Salam, to the hands of the state.

The Secretary-General of the Imam Ali Brigades, Shibl al-Zaidi, said in a tweet on Twitter, followed by Shafak News Agency, “The blocs objecting to the forgery are not lost blocs, and they have enough evidence, facts, suspicions, violations and manipulation to prove the forgery process, but they dealt rationally, wisely and patiently and used legal and legal methods.”

He added, “We did not work or try to destroy the political process or jump on it, but rather to return it to the right path. If it was the opposite and manipulation occurred from other parties, the situation would have been very different.”

Al-Zaidi concluded by saying, “We are state builders and demanders of truth, and there is no right lost behind demands, and our resolve will not fail the struggle of the counter forces, nor their statements, nor their blessing with the legitimacy of electoral fraud and fraud.”

For his part, the security official of the Iraq Hezbollah Brigades, Abu Ali al-Askari, said in a tweet on Twitter, which was followed by Shafak News Agency, commenting on al-Sadr’s speech, “We welcome the speech of handing over or confining arms to the state because of its contribution to sparing people the evils of internal fighting.”

And he added, “The above-mentioned party should be the one who first begins handing over weapons, especially heavy ones, and transferring the responsibility of its brigades to the Popular Mobilization leadership for the purpose of organizing them and removing the undisciplined from them.” 

Earlier today, the leader of the Sadrist movement, Muqtada al-Sadr, announced a set of conditions for the participation of the losing Shiite political forces in the elections in forming the next Iraqi government, most notably the dissolution of all armed factions.

Al-Sadr said in a press conference held today in Najaf, “My message is to the political forces that consider themselves losers in the elections. Those elections whose integrity the world has witnessed, should not be your loss to end and ruin the democratic process in Iraq now and in the future.”

He addressed those forces, saying: If you participate in the formation of the government, you must hold accountable those afflicted with suspicions of corruption and hand them over to the judiciary to determine the facts.

Al-Sadr stressed the liquidation of the popular crowd from the undisciplined elements and not to involve them in politics, and the severing of all foreign relations with foreign countries in a way that preserves for Iraq its prestige and not to interfere in the affairs of neighboring countries.

He demanded “the dissolution of all armed factions in one go, and handing over their weapons to the crowd under the supervision of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.”

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Saleh and Plaschaert discuss resolving the election controversy according to legal contexts

politicsIraqi electionsJeanine Hennis-PlasschaertIraqi President Barham Salih 2021-11-18 09:29A-AA+

Shafaq News / The President of the Republic, Barham Salih, and the representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, Jeanine Plaschaert, stressed on Thursday the protection of stability and support for Iraq’s efforts to enhance its security and stability.

This came when the President of the Republic received the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, at Al-Salam Palace in the capital, Baghdad, according to a statement received by Shafaq News Agency.

During the meeting, emphasis was placed on “protecting stability and supporting Iraq’s efforts to enhance its security and stability, and to strengthen its economic conditions and development efforts.”

The two sides also discussed the election file and looked into the electoral appeals and complaints guaranteed by the legal and electoral regulations, and resolved them according to judicial and professional contexts and with high transparency to enhance confidence in the electoral process and pave the way for the formation of an effective government that meets the rights and aspirations of Iraqis.

https://shafaq.com/ar/%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D8%B5%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD-%D9%88%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%AA-%D9%8A%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%AD%D8%B3%D9%85-%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88%D9%81%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9

This evening, the Shiite framework meets at Al-Hakim’s house to discuss “Al-Sadr’s speech”

politicsbreakingMuqtada al-SadrIraqi electionsShiite coordination framework 2021-11-18 08:59A-AA+

Shafaq News/ A political source said early on Thursday, that the forces of the Shiite coordination framework will hold an important meeting this evening at the house of the leader of the Wisdom Movement, Ammar al-Hakim.

The source told Shafak News Agency; The meeting will discuss Al-Hakim’s initiative, as well as the latest developments in the appeals against the election results. The meeting will also address what was stated in the speech of the leader of the Sadrist movement, Muqtada Al-Sadr.

The source indicated; The Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq, Jenin Hennis-Plasschaert, may participate in the meeting, but this matter has not been resolved until now.

https://shafaq.com/ar/%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%AC%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B9-%D8%A8%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B2%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%83%D9%8A%D9%85-%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%B4%D8%A9-%D8%AE%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1

Most notably, the dissolution of the factions..Al-Sadr sets conditions for the losing forces to participate in the Iraqi government

politicsIraqbreakingthe chest 2021-11-18 08:51A-AA+

Shafaq News/ The leader of the Sadrist movement, Muqtada al-Sadr, announced on Thursday a set of conditions for the participation of the losing Shiite political forces in the elections in forming the next Iraqi government, most notably the dissolution of all armed factions.

Al-Sadr said in a press conference held today in Najaf, “My message to the political forces that consider themselves losers in the elections, those elections whose integrity the world has witnessed, should not be your loss to end and ruin the democratic process in Iraq now and in the future.”

He addressed those forces, saying: If you participate in the formation of the government, you must hold accountable those afflicted with suspicions of corruption and hand them over to the judiciary to determine the facts. 

Al-Sadr stressed the liquidation of the popular crowd from the undisciplined elements and not to involve them in politics, and the severing of all foreign relations with foreign countries in a way that preserves for Iraq its prestige and not to interfere in the affairs of neighboring countries. 

He demanded “the dissolution of all armed factions in one go, and handing over their weapons to the crowd under the supervision of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.” 

The leader of the Sadrist movement also pointed out that what is happening in Mosul should be brought to an immediate end.

He continued by saying: We seek to form a national majority government, adding that the people are looking forward to announcing the election results and forming a government quickly.

https://shafaq.com/ar/%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%8A%D8%B6%D8%B9-%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B7%D8%A7-%D9%84%D9%84%D9%82%D9%88%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%AA%D8%B4%D9%83%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%83%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%A9

The Governor of the Central Bank and the Egyptian Ambassador discuss ways of joint cooperation

sweeteners2021-11-18 | 07:51

The Governor of the Central Bank and the Egyptian Ambassador discuss ways of joint cooperation

Source:Alsumaria news 357 views

Today, Thursday, the Governor of the Central Bank of Iraq, Mustafa Ghaleb Mukhif, discussed with the Egyptian Ambassador to Iraq, Walid Muhammad Ismail, ways of joint cooperation.

The media office of the Central Bank of Iraq said, in a statement received by Alsumaria News, that “the governor of the Central Bank of Iraq, Mustafa Ghaleb, is scared, and he received the Egyptian ambassador to Iraq, Walid Muhammad Ismail.” The statement added, “Makhif and Ismail discussed ways of joint cooperation between the two brotherly countries in monetary and economic issues, including emphasizing the importance of revitalizing Iraqi and Egyptian banking.” nullnull For his part, the Egyptian ambassador confirmed that “Egypt is keen for Iraq to have a leading banking sector,” praising at the same time the plan adopted by the Central Bank of Iraq’s administration to reform the banking sector.

https://www.alsumaria.tv/news/%D9%85%D8%AD%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA/403440/%D9%85%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%86%D9%83-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%83%D8%B2%D9%8A-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%B3%D8%A8%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9

World Bank: Iraq’s Economic Growth Is Gradually Recovering

On 11/18/2021 – 4:22 PM  21

A World Bank Report Confirmed, Thursday, That Iraq’s Economic Growth Is Gradually Recovering Due To The Downturn In The Epidemic And The Increase In Non-Oil Activity.
The Report Stated That “The Downside Risks To The Growth Of The Iraqi Economy Are Related To Possible Epidemiological Developments, Fluctuations In Oil Prices, Setbacks In The Security Situation, And Impeding The Implementation Of Economic Reform.”
He Added, “Iraq Is One Of The World’s Most Dependent Countries On Oil. Over The Past Decade, Oil Revenues Accounted For More Than 99 Percent Of Exports, 85 Percent Of The Government Budget, And 42 Percent Of GDP, And This Excessive Dependence On Oil Exposes The Country To Fluctuations.” Macroeconomics, While Budget Resilience Correlates With Growth.”
He Continued, “The Corona Virus Epidemic Had A Significant Impact On Iraq’s Gross Domestic Product In 2020, Which Shrank By 15.7 Percent, And Its Budget Revenues Shrank By 9 Percent, Which Led To A Sharp Decline In Public Spending And Investments.”
And He Indicated That “As Of January Of 2021, The Unemployment Rate In Iraq Was Ten Percentage Points Higher Than The Pre-Pandemic Level, Which Stands At 12.7 Percent, And Unemployment Is Still High Among The Displaced, Returnees, Job Seekers, Self-Employed And Workers In The Informal Sector Before The Spread Of Epidemic. Food Security Concerns Persisted Despite The Recent Upward Trend In The Proportion Of Households Receiving Public And Private Transfers, Including Food Rations.”
The Report Indicated That “While Iraq’s Economic Conditions Are Gradually Improving With The Recovery Of Global Oil Markets, This Recovery Is Also Fraught With Major Risks Posed By Structural Bottlenecks, Including Public Investment Management Restrictions That Affected The Provision Of Public Services, And The Slow Payment Of Arrears, Especially Those Related To Wages Public, Significant Exposure To Government Property, Due To The Fragile Political Situation, Weak Healthcare System, And Endemic Corruption That Continues To Foment Unrest Across The Country.

البنك الدولي: النمو الاقتصادي للعراق يتعافى تدريجياً

With the support of Biden, Iraq is on the table of American legislators, and an important decision will be made soon

  •  Time: 11/18/2021 09:04:00 
  •  Reading: 3,393 times 
With the support of Biden, Iraq is on the table of American legislators, and an important decision will be made soon

{International: Al Furat News} Members of the US Congress are engaged in a debate about canceling the presidential mandate that gave the green light to the US war in Iraq in 2003, amid the Democrats’ demand to revoke it and opposition among the Republicans. 

The abolition of the war mandate in Iraq may pave the way for the termination of another mandate for Afghanistan, which has been widely criticized for its lack of geographic limitations and the destinations that US forces may target in their military operations.   

The Authorization to Use Military Force Against Iraq Act of 2002, or AUMF 2002, granted former US President George W. Bush the authorization to wage war against Saddam’s regime. 

This authorization was used recently in January 2020, when former US President Donald Trump ordered a drone strike in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, which led to the martyrdom of the commander in the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Qassem Soleimani, the deputy head of the Popular Mobilization Authority, Abu Mahdi Al-Muhandis, and a number of others. their companions. 

Some have criticized the use of Iraq’s mandate in the assassination of Soleimani, and that “leaving the law hanging may encourage its misuse by future presidents,” according to the “Axios” website. 

The difference between mandates and a declaration of war

US laws provide many military powers to the US president, who is also the commander of the armed forces. Article II of the Constitution grants him a mandate to use force in specific cases, after obtaining the approval of Congress. 

“Declarations of war” give the US president the full and unconditional use of the US military, provided they obtain a “specific statutory authorization” from Congress, or in self-defense after the country is under attack and a state of emergency is declared.

The United States issued its last “declaration of war”, in 1942, against Romania during World War II. 

But then Congress approved a number of mandates that deviated from the constitutional norm, which allow the US president to launch military operations in specific cases, without the need for congressional approval. 

The United States has waged its wars in Vietnam, the Gulf, Afghanistan and Iraq according to these mandates.  

Four days after the September 11, 2001 attacks, Congress issued the “AUMF 2001” authorization, which allowed any US president to use military force according to parameters that Congress had placed under the “war on terror” designation, without the need for prior approval. 

However, the wording of this mandate did not include any geographical boundaries, which allowed actions to be taken against all those who “planned, authorized, committed, or assisted” al-Qaeda in carrying out terrorist attacks and those who “harbored” the attackers, and thus paved the way for launching the American war on Afghanistan, which embraced fighters Al-Qaeda. 

This “broad” language has contributed to the US launching 41 operations in 19 countries, according to the Friends Committee on National Legislation website.

The 2002 AUMF mandate for the US war in Iraq defined the president’s authority to use the armed forces as “necessary and appropriate” to “defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq” and “implement all Security Council resolutions relevant to Iraq.” “.

decisive vote

The Senate is expected to vote this week to repeal the “2002 AUMF” mandate for Iraq, as part of the passage of the $768 billion annual defense authorization bill. 

After about 20 years, the United States reduced the number of its forces in Iraq to 2,500 out of 170,000, and the Iraqi government became a close ally of Washington. 

supporters

Democrats seek to declare their success in ending America’s eternal wars, and this was evident when the United States announced the withdrawal from Afghanistan, to end the longest war it has ever witnessed.  

The current US President, Joe Biden, supports the decision to cancel the authorization for Iraq, and acknowledged that the United States “has no military activities that rely exclusively on the 2002 AUMF according to a domestic legal basis.” 

Repealing the law could provide a more specific mandate for current challenges. 

The legislators seek to revoke the Afghanistan mandate (AUMF 2001), and see rescinding Iraq’s first mandate as a necessary and essential step to do so.  

Democratic Senator Tim Kaine, who has led efforts to repeal Afghanistan’s mandate, said members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee were in talks with the White House to repeal and replace “AUMF 2001.” 

But, he emphasized, “the idea was always that we’d revoke another mandate first.” 

Critics see Afghanistan’s mandate as a “blank check” used to launch military operations in Iraq, Yemen, Somalia, Libya, Syria, Niger, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya and the Philippines.  

Democratic Senator and Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Bob Menendez, told Axios, “I believe that Congress should give consent to the use of force, and when it has served its purpose, should rescind it to ensure that it is not abused.” 

Menendez warned that repealing Afghanistan’s mandate “is a complex matter,” adding that the 2001 mandate “is not just about repealing it, but about replacing it.”

His position was shared by Republican Senator Rand Paul, who told Axios, “I think it would be great if we could rescind the 2002 (Iraq) mandate,” but warned that rescinding Afghanistan’s mandate “would be more complicated.” 
 
Democratic Senator Ben Cardin, for his part, showed more interest in rescinding Afghanistan’s mandate because presidents interpreted it “as allowing them to do whatever they want,” he told Axios.  

opponents 

But some Republicans fear that repealing Iraq’s mandate may embolden armed groups in the country that have carried out attacks against US forces stationed there. 

And the “Axios” website quoted sources close to the Republican minority leader in the Senate, Mitch McConnell, that he expected the mandate to be revoked, but would demand that it be kept. 

For his part, Republican Senator Ted Cruz said: “I believe strongly in Congress carrying out its powers of war.”

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